Customizable ‘Smart’ Exoskeleton Learns from Your Steps

Customizable 'Smart' Exoskeleton Learns from Your Steps

Customizable ‘Smart’ Exoskeleton Learns from Your Steps


Previously, the median energy reductions carried out by other research teams were 14.5 percent, the use of manually adjusted ankle exoskeletons on both legs and 22.8 percent, using an exosuit that acted in Both hips and both ankles using preprogrammed parameters.

However, the human-in-the-loop CMU algorithm performed well and was not based on previous programming.

“This algorithm was so good that it has discovered a strategy to help reduce energy costs with a single device,” Jackson said. “It was very good.” [10 best inventions that changed the world]

The challenge of exo-skeletons is that even though they are meant to help a person, they can prevent the movement, Jackson said. To begin with, each device comes with its own weight from a few ounces to a few kilos, and the user must carry that weight. Exo-skeletons are also designed to apply force to body parts, but if the force time is off, the person may need to use more energy to move, Jackson said. And it is counterproductive.

During the optimization of the recent study phase, each participant wore an ankle exoskeleton and a mask designed to measure levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide (CO2). These measures refer to the amount of energy consumed by the person. As each person entered a treadmill at a steady pace, the exoskeleton has been applied a set of different modes of assistance ankles and toes.

These models were a combination of applied force and strength. For example, forces could be applied early in a position (when the heel touches the ground first) in the middle position (when the foot is flat) or the last position (when the foot is wrapped in the toe). During these changing positions, more or more force could be applied.

The algorithm was tested responses of the participants to 32 different models, which change every 2 minutes. Then it is measured if the model was easier or more difficult for the person to walk.

At the end of the session, which lasted for more than an hour, the algorithm produces a unique support model optimized for each individual.

“As for the overall shape of the models, there is great variability, which speaks to the importance of tailoring these strategies to each person, rather than applying the same to everyone,” Jackson said.

He added that the device may have worked well, not only because it was “learning”, but also because, by changing the method of attendance, the person who used it also taught.

“We believe this forces people to explore different ways of coordinating their efforts to better interact with the device,” Jackson said. This helps guide the person on how best to use the device and make the most of it. “It’s a two-lane street,” he said.

Other team members plan to test how the algorithm could be expanded to create an exoskeleton at six joints, designed to be used over the entire lower half of the body.

Why ‘Greener’ Gas-Powered Vehicles Aren’t As Clean As You Think

'Greener' Gas-Powered Vehicles

Why ‘Greener’ Gas-Powered Vehicles Aren’t As Clean As You Think


Gasoline vehicles that use cleaner technology can still throw tons of harmful chemicals into the atmosphere, new research suggests.

The “green” vehicles are equipped with the latest technology that catches the particles more and mostly causes the vapors. However, these vapors can still react chemically with other compounds in the atmosphere to form pollutants – it may last a little longer, a new study suggests. [The 10 most polluted places on the planet]

The air pollution

When cars burn gasoline, they produce a mixture of vapor, droplets and fine solid particles exiting the exhaust pipe of a vehicle and into the atmosphere. Solid particles, called primary organic aerosols, are what most people experience when considering black powder particles that emerge from a powerful rupture tube. Some of these particles are less than about 2.5 microns in diameter, small enough to dig deep into a person’s lungs and even circulate in the bloodstream, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. These particles have been linked to heart and lung problems, according to a 2006 study in the Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. However, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which can be formed in a chemical reaction between sunlight and organic compounds from the exhaust pipes, wells and power plants, can also have an effect on health, according to The blade

In recent years, stricter emission guidelines have significantly reduced the amount of primary organic aerosols that cars can emit. However, it was unclear how it ultimately affects the formation of secondary compounds that could further damage health.

For more information, Allen Robinson, a mechanical engineer at Carnegie Mellon University in Pennsylvania and director of the Center for Air, Climate and Energy Solutions, funded by the EPA and colleagues have a fleet of 59 vehicles in a smog room . The cars were of different ages and extended to a range of different emission standards, ranging from low emission vehicles to ultra-low-emission vehicles, which means they produce 90% less emissions than the average vehicle. The team found that newer vehicles produce fewer emissions overall. But when they have depth, they found that the formation of SOA has not fallen as sharply as the total emissions from the exhaust pipe.

For example, when tested on vehicles that have reduced primary pollution aerosols by a factor of 20 (compared to vehicles with more light emitting), the amount of SOA formed only decreased by a factor of 3. When they have depth, Found that the relationship between SOA issues and training were very complicated and they have been affected by the individual compounds formed in the combustion process – even if the effect of a single handle were studied these individual compounds. In particular, they found that higher ratios between certain types of organic gases and nitrous oxide (NOx) compounds in the atmosphere (often escape exhaust) could harm the effects of reducing emissions.

Using computer simulations for the Los Angeles area, they found that stricter emission standards may not result in the reduction of SOA, reported June 16 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

“Overall, it was found that the new, stricter regulations for exhaust emissions from gasoline vehicles would not be effective in reducing human exposure to secondary organic aerosols due to changes in NOx levels,” Robinson said. a statement. “This feedback shows the complex coupling between different pollutants, which must be taken into account in the models used to develop control strategies.”

The results show how complicated it is to predict and mitigate the negative health effects associated with fuel combustion, since all chemical products can react in a complex way, the researchers noted. As a result, emissions standards should focus on NOx and organic gases to better control pollution, the researchers wrote in the article.